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Респираторно-синцитиальная вирусная инфекция. Особенности патогенеза, стратегия профилактики и лечения

https://doi.org/10.15690/vsp.v12i2.618

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Аннотация

Респираторно-синцитиальный вирус (РСВ) играет чрезвычайно важную роль в структуре инфекционной патологии дыхательного тракта, в особенности у детей первых лет жизни. В развитых индустриальных странах у детей в возрасте до 3 лет, госпитализированных с острыми респираторными инфекциями с поражением нижних отделов дыхательного тракта, частота диагностирования РСВ-инфекции достигает 42–63%. Факторами повышенного риска заболеваемости РСВ-инфекцией и ее тяжелого течения являются недоношенность, возраст до 1 года, так же как и престарелый возраст, врожденные болезни сердца и крови, иммунодефицитные состояния. Среди госпитализированных с РСВ-инфекцией детей смертность составляет в среднем 1%, но достигает 37% при отягощенном анамнезе. Из всех респираторных вирусов РСВ наиболее часто (особенно у детей первого года жизни) вызывает обструкцию дыхательных путей. РСВ-инфекция, перенесенная в младенчестве, ассоциирована с отдаленными по времени патологическими последствиями: повышенным риском возникновения бронхообструкции при последующих острых респираторных инфекциях, общей алергизацией организма, развитием бронхиальной астмы. Несмотря на острую необходимость, до сих пор не разработано эффективных и безопасных вакцин против РСВ, а перечень лекарственных препаратов весьма ограничен. В настоящем обзоре рассмотрены механизмы, обусловливающие развитие иммунопатологии при РСВ-инфекции, а также современное состояние проблемы профилактики и лечения этого заболевания.

Об авторе

В. З. Кривицкая
Научно-исследовательский институт гриппа, Санкт-Петербург
Россия


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Для цитирования:


Кривицкая В.З. Респираторно-синцитиальная вирусная инфекция. Особенности патогенеза, стратегия профилактики и лечения. Вопросы современной педиатрии. 2013;12(2):35-43. https://doi.org/10.15690/vsp.v12i2.618

For citation:


Krivitskaya V.Z. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection. Pathogenesis Peculiarities, Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Current Pediatrics. 2013;12(2):35-43. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15690/vsp.v12i2.618

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